Tumia Mbinu Hizi Kuelewa Unachokisoma

PICHA: Oxford Learning


Kusoma kitu usichokielewa ni hasara. Mbali na kuongeza uwezekano wa ‘kupigwa chenga’ wakati wa mtihani, kutokuelewa kunaharibu dhima ya elimu.

Mtu asiyeelewa kile alichojifunza, kwa mfano, hawezi kutumia maarifa aliyonayo kuleta tija kwa jamii.

Elimu kwa mtu huyu inabaki kuwa na maana ya ‘kumeza’, ‘kutapika ulichomeza’ na kufaulu mtihani. Baada ya hapo, mtu huyu anasahau kila alichojifunza na maisha yanaendelea. Elimu ya namna hii, kwa hakika, haiwezi kuwa na tija.

Pengine unaweza kuuliza, kuelewa maana yake nini? Kwa lugha nyepesi, kuelewa ni uwezo wa kujifunza maarifa mapya kwa namna inayokuwezesha kuyamiliki maarifa hayo.

Unapomiliki maarifa maana yake unayafanya kuwa sehemu ya maisha yako na hivyo kujiweka kwenye nafasi nzuri zaidi ya kuyatumia maarifa hayo katika kutafuta ufumbuzi wa changamoto zinazoikabili jamii yako.

Katika makala yaliyopita nilieleza baadhi ya makosa yanayochangia kuwafanya wanafunzi washindwe kuelewa kile wanachojifunza. Nami kwa wakati fulani, niliwahi kukariri. Nilitumia muda mrefu ‘kumeza’ mambo nisiyoyaelewa.

Hata hivyo, baadae nilibadilika na kujifunza namna bora ya kusoma. Ninaamini nilichojifunza kila mwanafunzi anaweza pia kujifunza na akabadilika.

Katika makala haya, ningependa kukushirikisha baadhi ya mbinu zinazoweza kukusaidia kubadilika na hatimaye uelewe kile unachokisoma.

Nini kinakupa motisha?

Motisha ni msukumo ulioko ndani yako unaokusukuma kufanya kitu. Njaa, kwa mfano, inaweza kuwa motisha ya kumsukuma mtu kutafuta chakula. Bila njaa, huwezi kula.
Ndivyo ilivyo kwa mwanafunzi. Usipokuwa na ‘njaa’ ya kujifunza, hutaona sababu yoyote ya kukufanya uelewe kile unachofundishwa. Ili uweze kufanyia kazi mapendekezo yanayofuata, lazima kwanza uwe na msukumo wa kutosha ndani yako.

Niliwahi kusoma na bwana mmoja ambaye siku hizi ni daktari bingwa. Tangu tunaingia shuleni siku ya kwanza, bwana huyu alionekana kuwa na shauku kubwa ya kujifunza. Wakati sisi wengine tukiendelea kuzoea mazingira ya shule huyu bwana tayari alikuwa anasoma.

Hakusubiri mwalimu aingie darasani kumwambia nini cha kusoma. Tayari alikuwa na mhutasari (syllabus) wa kila somo na ratiba ya nini cha kusoma. Hii ndiyo inaitwa ‘njaa’ ya kujifunza. Usipokuwa nayo, hakuna mtu anaweza kukufundisha mbinu za kusoma kwa bidii.

Je, unayo sababu yoyote ya kukufanya usome kwa juhudi? Fikiria namna gani ufaulu mzuri wa masomo yako unavyoweza kubadili maisha yako siku za mbeleni. Fikiria utoshelevu utakaojisikia utakapoweza kutumia elimu yako kugusa maisha ya watu katika jamii.

Fikiria jitihada alizofanya mzazi wako kukupeleka shule kama aina ya urithi anaoamini ndio muafaka zaidi kwako. Fikiria ndoto zinazokusukuma kuwa shuleni. Je, una ndoto za kufanya nini baada ya maisha ya shule?

Ndoto hizo, kwa kiasi kikubwa, zinategemea yale unayoyafanya leo kama mwanafunzi. Ukishindwa kufaulu mtihani au kutumia kile unachokijua itakuwa vigumu kuziishi ndoto zako hizo.

Uhusiano huo wa masomo na ndoto zako uamshe ‘njaa’ ya kujifunza. Bila ‘njaa’ hiyo ya kufikia malengo yako, itakuwa vigumu kufurahia masomo yako.

Jambo la kuzingatia ni kwamba, uelewa wako, kwa kiasi kikubwa, unategemea hisia zako. Kitu usichokipenda akili hukizuia kisipate nafasi ya kusumbua yale unayoyapenda. Anza kupenda masomo yako utaona namna ‘njaa’ ya kujifunza na kuelewa itakavyokuwa kubwa.


Husianisha na unachokijua

Kwamba umeweza kusoma makala haya mpaka hapa, maana yake una motisha ya kutosha kutaka kujua mbinu za kuelewa. Hiyo, hata hivyo, haimaanishi kwamba lazima utazielewa. Motisha na uelewa ni mambo mawili tofauti ingawa yanahusiana.

Tukirejea tuliyoyajadili kwenye makala iliyopita, kikwazo kimoja wapo cha wanafunzi wengi kutokuelewa masomo ni kukariri.

Kukariri maana yake ni kuilazimisha akili kukumbuka kitu kisichohusiana na maarifa yaliyoko kwenye ufahamu wako tayari. Ili kulazimisha akili ishike, wanafunzi wengi husoma vitu vingi vidogo vidogo ambavyo kwa hakika mara nyingi huwa havina uhusiano wowote.

Mtu anayekariri masomo ni sawa na mtumiaji wa simu anayejaribu kuweka kichwani tarakimu 15 za vocha yenye muda wa maongezi. Kwa vyovyote vile itakuwa kazi ngumu kukumbuka tarakimu hizo kwa sababu hazina uhusiano wowote baina yao.

Kwa hiyo kama unataka kuelewa, hatua ya kwanza ni kuhakikisha kile unachokisoma kwa namna moja au nyingine kinafanana na kitu ambacho tayari unacho kwenye ufahamu wako.

Namna nzuri ya kuhakikisha hilo linawezekana ni kuhusianisha mambo unayoyasoma na maisha yako ya kawaida. Hakuna maarifa yasiyolenga kufananua mambo ya kawaida tunayoyaona kila siku. Kazi yako, kama mtu anayejifunza, ni kuhakikisha unasoma mambo kwa kutumia miwani ya maisha yako ya kila siku.

Fikiria namna gani mambo hayo unayoyasoma yanafanana na mambo unayoyasikia, unayoyaona na pengine unayoamini. Fikiria namna kile unachokisoma kinavyooana na uzoefu wako wa kila siku.


Tengeneza wazo kuu kwanza

Unapoanza kusoma, unahitaji kwenda hatua kwa hatua. Kwanza kabisa, soma kupata wazo kuu utakaloliingiza kichwani. Wazo hili kuu ndilo litakalotumiwa na akili yako kama rejea kadri unavyoendelea kusoma.

Hatua inayofuata ni kujua undani wa wazo ulilolitengeneza tayari. Kazi hii ya kuelewa undani wa wazo kuu haitakuwa ngumu kwa sababu tayari akili yako itakuwa imeshachora kitu itakachokirejea.

Kwa mfano, unaposoma kazi za ‘nucleus’ kwenye seli, lazima uwe unajua seli yenyewe inafanya nini na inahusianaje na maisha yako ya kila siku. Usipofanya hivyo, kazi yako haitakuwa tofauti sana na mtu anayejaribu kukumbuka tarakimu 15 za vocha ya muda wa maongezi.

Kadri unavyosoma, unayo maswali mawili makubwa ya kujiuliza. Kwanza, namna gani hiki ninachokisoma kinafanana na kile ninachokijua tayari. Kama unachokisoma hakifanani na kile unachokifahamu tayari, maana yake unakariri.

Swali la pili, ni namna gani hiki ninachokisoma kinatofautiana na kile ninachokijua tayari. Kama huoni tofauti maana yake, hujifunzi na utasahau kabla hujamaliza.


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