Wednesday, December 9, 2009

Soma 'tasnifu' ya msomi wa Chuo Kikuu

Mjadala wa lugha gani itumike katika mfumo wetu wa elimu, ni suala la kutia aibu kuliko hata aibu yenyewe. Inadhalilisha sana unaposikia watu wazima hajui tutumie lugha gani kufundishia. Eti tunabishana kipi bora Kiswahili ama Kiingereza, kweli? Fedheha hii inatokana na ukweli kwamba lugha ya kiingereza inayolazimishiwa hivi sasa ni miongoni mwa maajabu saba ya dunia kwa wanafunzi wengi.

Leo nimekuja na ushahidi wa karibu kabisa unaonyesha sura halisi ya tatizo. Nimepata bahati ya kupata karabrasha la 'utafiti' uliofanywa na mwanafunzi mmoja wa Chuo Kikuu aliyekuwa anajiandaa kuitetea Digrii yake kwa kuandika 'tasnifu'.

Baada ya kusoma vipande vichache vya karabrasha hili naomba uamue mwenyewe kuwa Digrii iliyomwezesha kuandika andiko hili ni halali ama ni feki. Halafu fikiri nani wa kumlaumu: yeye mwenyewe asiyejua lugha ambayo ni ya wakoloni na haitumii kuwasiliana na jamii yake au ni serikali yake isiyoelewa makosa ya kugenisha hadi lugha?

Inawezekana kabisa kuwa wakati unaposoma andiko hili, mwenyewe anafanya kazi ya kufundisha wanafunzi nchini ama ni Mkurugenzi kabisa wa Elimu kama alikuwa na chaneli.

Kwa sababu ya kulinda haki yake, nimechomoa vipande vidogo vidogo ambavyo vitakupa picha ya jumla ya namna anavyokielezea kile alichokifanya. Kumbuka lengo si kuuchambua ‘utafiti’ wake ila KUSHUHUDIA matumizi ya lugha ya kigeni na athari zake kwenye mfumo wa elimu.

Majina yote nimeyabadilisha na taarifa nyingine zimebinywa kwa makusudi mazima.

Najua unaposoma ‘tasnifu’ hii wakati mwingine utajawa hofu kiasi kwamba usipokuwa mvumilivu unaweza kunituhumu kuwa huenda nimechonokoa andiko lake kwa makusudi. Nakuhakikishia sijafanya kingine zaidi ya kupunguza aya nisizozihitaji na kubadili majina yaliyotajwa. (Maana najua kabisa haki za utafiti huu zimehifadhiwa.)

Haya na tusome:


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to convey my sincere gratitude to people who assisted me to in carrying out this research project productively. In a very special way I would like to thanks Dr. Majimarefu (jina la dakta nimelibadilisha) my lecturer and research project coordinator for his good organization and coordination of the research project work. Exceptional and well-regarded positive thanks should also go to the heads of the schools in which I visited and get the information that enables me to write this research project. I also like to thanks the heads of the NGO’s that provide school fees and other important assistance to some of the students in my study area. I would like to thanks all librarians for their assistance in helping us to get the required materials that was relevant to my research project. Lastly my special thanks goes to Mr. Fataki (jina limebadilishwa) who helped me much when I
was search information from the internet and writing this research project using the computer.



ABSTRACT

This research project was carried in Lushoto and Korogwe districts areas to find out whether additional school cost prevent the students from poor families from attending secondary school. The research project concentrate in the two schools in Lushoto and one in Korogwe district as a case study.

(mengine nimeyaacha kwa makusudi)


1.6. Literature Review
(Pata kipande hiki kifupi)

The World Bank estimates that 40% or more of the unit costs of schooling in Tanzania are borne by the parents World Bank (1997: 49). Lwaitama A.F., EP. Mtato EP et al, (2001) state that the cost sharing are a great problem to many parents, and many children have no access to education because their parents doesn’t afford the costs.



2.7. Limitations


Reluctant of Interviewee to give information, some parents and the village administrators was asking for some money so that they can give information, and some of the heads of the school was hiding what they do for the students who does not pay for these additional costs.

Language problem, Parents, village administrators, and some of the students was facing the language problem when the researcher administered interview and during the focus group discussion. This make researcher to user time to translate the interview questions to Kiswahili so that the respondents can understand and then translate the respondent information to English. These slow down the speed of data collection and reduce the number of respondents.

Fund, for financing this study was not handed up on time. This makes the postponement of the data collection and submission of the final report date and this was caused by the loan board.

3. 0 Reseach Findings

other than the basic cost fees are limiting factor for the students of the poor families from attending the public secondary school in Tanzania. On the other hand only 14.4 percentages disagree with the hypothesis. This result shows that the opportunities of education on to the students of the poor families are low due to these additional costs. This argument is also supporter by several articles and authors like Mtalo and Lwaitama A.F.

3.4. Discussion


unpredictable rainfall, this make many families to have low income that make the paying of the school fees and additional costs to be a great problem.

Fluctuation of the price of agriculture products, the head master of Blogu secondary School) Mr. Mrema explain to researcher that the main problem that make the income of the peoples around the school area is the price fluctuation of the farm product.


How school society treats students with the problem in paying school fees and other contribution? The students with school fees and additional costs payment problem are harshly treated by the head of the school. They are used to be sent home frequently to bring the money for the payments when their fellow are in class go on with their studies. For example Eliaichi Temba the student in Blogu secondary school said that “we always lost a lot of the lesson because our head master used to send us home frequently to bring money” she explained further that some time the students can lost a three day in the week at home waiting the his /her parents to get money to pay for them.


3.6. Critical Review


Through out the study some of the aspect went well but others does not went well due to the different factors which is not limited but include the following

The aspect that went well includes but not limited to the following

Data analysis, the data analysis went well because the reseacher was taught the data
analysis part during the lecture session very well such that researcher understand well on how to analyze data, and the help that the researcher get from the Assistance supervisor Dr. Blogu. All these help the researcher to analyze the data with the confidence.

Consultancy, There was time allocated by the lecturer and supervisor in a way that the researcher can use that a time to make consultancy if there is a problems as researcher went on with the study and hence ensure accuracy in every stage of the study.

The aspect that does not went well include the following:

Financial difficulties, the financial difficulties make the data collection, proposal writing not to be done in the time arranged, and make the submission of the final report to be postponed. This makes use a lot of time in research instead of dealing with other things else.
Report writing, was some how difficult because the researcher was not excel in computer, and during the research project writing the university computer laboratory was out of use by the university students this enforce the researcher to use the little money allocated for typing in the stationery that lead the shortage of fund before the completion of the research project report.


3.8. Conclusion


The study show clearly the problem faced by the students from the poor family in paying the school additional cost in the public school. And this show that the education will be for those who their family can pay and those who can’t pay they remain aside and the gap between those who have and those who not have will increase and lead to increase in the problem of income inequality which include but not limited to corruption, theft and other bad action in our society. But the government and NGO’s can do something in helping this croup as suggested in the recommendation part of this research project article.



Aidha baada ya uchambuzi huo, mtafiti aliweka ambatanisho lake la maswali aliyoyatumia. Nimechagua yale yaliyonivutia zaidi. Yasome kwa makini uelewe:

4. APPENDICES


GUIDING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRES TO SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION:

4. Are there any parents who totally fail to pay the additional expenses for their children?
6. Are there any students in your school who fail to join or continue with the studies as they failing to pay additional expenses?
7. Are there any non government organization (NGO’s) Financing some of the students in your school, It Yes how many students. What are that NGO’s?




GUIDING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRES TO PARENTS:

1. How many children do you have, are there any of them who are in secondary school?
2. What are the family annul income and what are the basic sources of the family income?
3. What are the other uses of the family income obtained apart from the payment for education?
5. What is your opinion if some one pays the school fees for your child?


GUIDING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRES TO STUDENTS:

1. What make you not attending to secondary school and you have selected?
2. Do you think there are means that your parents can use to get money to pay fees and other contributions?
3. What are you doing now in your place?
4. Are you willing to go school if someone pay fees and additional costs for you?

************************************************************************

Je, bado unabisha kwamba Kiingereza ni janga la kujitakia la elimu yetu? Je, unadhani a0nachokifikiri msomi huyu ndicho anachokiandika?

11 comments:

John Mwaipopo said...

nakuja sasa hivi. patamu hapa

John Mwaipopo said...

kwenye mvutano huu wa lugha ya kupeleka maarifa (kufundishia) huwa niko katikati. yaani nakuwa ndumilakuwili. kuna utafiti mmoja kuwa kama shida ni lugha mbona wanafunzi zaidi ya asilimia 65 shule ya msingi hufeli mtihani wa darasa la saba ilhali huko kunafundishiwa kiswahili.

nikija upande wa kingereza nacho ngoja nieleze kwa mtindo wa swali pia. hivi ndugu msomaji umewahi kuwa chumba cha mtihani na ukakumbuka hoja ila ukashindwa lugha ya kuiandika kwenye karatasi la mtihani? mie ilinitokea form 6 mtihani wa mock nadhani ilikuwa GS ila mwalimu aliyetusima mia alikuwa mshikaji sana. akanipa maana ya neno lililokuwa linanipa shida.

kuhusu hii tasinifu ni kuwa tukiwa bado katika bahari ya kuchagua kiswahili ama kizungu, huyu jamaa wa hii tasnifu anabeba lawama asilimia mia. labda uniambie uliichomoa kabla hajaihariri. kwa kawaida duniani mwandishi mzuri ni yule anayekubali kazi zake ziangaliwe na mtu mwingine (mhariri). ndio maana kuna wahariri. nimewahi kuhariri kitabu cha mzungu tena profesa mwalimu wangu. lengo halikuwa kusahihisha bali kutoa mchango wa mawazo. (ilikuwa kwenye somo maalum la uhariri). hivi unajua pia kiswahili tunachodhani tunakijua tunachapia sana. hata tasinifu ya kiswahili itakuwa na makosa yenye ubinamu na haya ya hii tasnifu. nazo zitahitaji uhariri.

Bwaya said...

Nimekupata John.

Hoja yako ni nzito: kwamba kama kiingereza ndio tatizo mbona halaiki ya wahitimu wa darasa la saba hushindwa kufaulu?

Nadhani wachangiaji wengine watachangia maoni yao katika hili.

Kuhusu lawama kwa mwanafunzi huyu:

Kwa nini abebe lawama wakati kufikiri kwake kunafanyika kwa kiswahili, ila tu anaandika kwa lugha ambayo haiihitaji?

Kwa nini tunamsababisha mwanafunzi huyu apoteze dakika nyingi kufiria namna ya kutengeneza sentensi (tenses) badala ya kufikiria hoja ya kuandika?

Je, kuna ulazima gani katika mazingira haya kumlazimisha mwanafunzi kutumia lugha asiyoiweza?

je, ni kweli kiswahili hakijitoshelezi? Mbona mwanafunzi hukitumia kufikiria?

Anonymous said...

Suala hili ni la kweli na lipo. Ni mfano mzuri wa matatizo ya lugha waliyonayo wanafunzi.
Mimi ni mkufunzi wa chuo nina mifano ya barua niliyoandikiwa na mwanafunzi wangu akitoa sababu kwa nini hakufanya test. Kwa kweli ni kichekesho.

Umefika wakati wa kutafakari namna ya kuwasaidia wanafunzi wetu kuliko kuimba wimbo wasiouweza

Masangu Matondo Nzuzullima said...

Mwaipopo – kuna sababu nyingi zinazosababisha wanafunzi kufeli mitihani ya darasa la saba; na si tatizo la lugha. Mfumo wetu wa elimu una matatizo makubwa kuanzia mwanzo; ambako tungetemea kwamba suala la lugha lisingekuwa na uzito sana.

Ukiangalia vizuri, wanafunzi wengi wanaofeli mitihani ya darasa la saba ni wale ambao wanasoma shule za vijijini (na kwa bahati mbaya NDIYO wengi). Sote tunajua hali ya vijijini ilivyo na mazingira ya shule hizi tunayajua. Kwa mfano shule hizi hazina walimu wazuri kwani walimu wazuri wote hukimbilia mijini ambako mazingira yana unafuu kidogo na wanaweza kubangaiza kazi za ziada mbali na kufundisha tu. Hata walimu waliokubali kubakia huku vijijini baadhi yao ni kama vile wameshakata tamaa. Sote tunajua mishahara wanayopata walimu hawa jinsi ilivyo midogo – na wakati mwingine wanalipwa kuwa kuchelewa.

Watoto wa vijijini pia huishi katika mazingira magumu ambayo hayawapi nafasi ya kujisomea na hata kufanya kazi zao za shuleni wakiwa nyumbani. Wakitoka shuleni si ajabu kuwakuta wakienda kuchota maji, kukamua ng’ombe, kutafuta kuni, kupika na kufanya kazi zingine za nyumbani. Mimi nimekulia katika mazingira haya na naweza kuzihesabu siku ambazo niliweza kutoka shuleni na kupata muda wa kujisomea. Hii kidogo ni tofauti kwa watoto wa mjini ambao si ajabu ukawakuta wanakwenda kwenye tuisheni, au kwenye makundi ya kujisomea. Kuweza kufaulu mtihani wa darasa la saba kusema kweli ni kubahatisha tu kwa watoto wa kijijini na ni lazima mtoto awe na akili sana. Mpaka hivi karibuni shule za kata zilipofunguliwa na kidogo kufungua milango ya elimu ya sekondari, ilikuwa ni kawaida kukuta kijiji kizima kikiwa na wanafunzi wawili au watatu waliofaulu mtihani wa darasa la saba na kufanikiwa kwenda sekondari. Katika kijiji chetu kwa mfano, ilikuwa ni mimi na jamaa mmoja ambaye sasa ni polisi. Tatizo ni kwamba hata hizi shule za kata zinazopokea hawa wanafunzi kwa wingi nazo zimo kwenye hatihati ileile. Zile zilizoko vijijini hazina walimu, maabara, vitabu, mesi na miundo mbinu mingine ambayo inaruhusu watoto kujisomea vizuri. Zile zilizoko mjini kidogo zina unafuu, kwani kama ilivyo katika shule za msingi, maisha ya mjini yana unafuu na walimu wana nafasi nyingi za kujiongezea kipato chao kuliko wenzao wa vijijini. Kwa hivyo walimu wazuri wanakimbilia huko na zina unafuu wa vifaa na hata majengo yake ni bora!

Kutokana na ugumu wa maisha vijijini – na hasa wakati wa kiangazi/ukame ambapo chakula si cha kutosha – watoto wengi wana uwezekano wa kwenda mashuleni wakiwa na njaa na unaweza kuwaona wakisinzia madarasani. Ninachotaka kusema hapa ni kwamba kufeli kwa wanafunzi wa shule za msingi ni tatizo linalosababishwa na mfumo wenyewe wa elimu na si tatizo linalosababishwa na LUGHA ya kufundishia. Na wanaoathirika zaidi ni wanafunzi wa vijijini ambao kwa bahati mbaya NDIYO WENGI.

Ni wazi kwamba Kiingereza kilichotumiwa katika tasnifu hii si Kiingereza kinachoweza kuboreshwa kwa kuhariri! Hiki ni Kiingereza cha hali ya chini kabisa ambacho hakipaswi kutumiwa katika kazi ya kiwango cha juu cha kitaaluma kama tasnifu ya shahada ya uzamili. Hata ukiipeleka kazi hii kwa mhariri, ni lazima itarudishwa kwani kazi ya mhariri ni kurekebisha makosa ya hapa na pale – tungo zilizopinda, matumizi mabovu ya herufi kubwa na ndogo, marejeo ambayo hayajaandikwa vizuri (au hayapo) n.k lakini siyo kufumua kazi nzima na kuanza kuboresha kiwango cha lugha iliyotumiwa (INAENDELEA)

Masangu Matondo Nzuzullima said...

Ni wazi kwamba Mwanafunzi huyu anafikiri kwanza katika Kiswahili kabla hajatafsiri katika Kiingereza na kusema kweli hiki ni Kiswahili ambacho kimeandikwa kwa Kiingereza. Tutake tusitake, kutokana na kujichanganya kwetu katika sera ya lugha, kiwango chetu cha Kiingereza ni cha chini mno, na tasnifu hii ni ushahidi wa kusikitisha.

Sera mpya ya serikali imependekeza Kiingereza kuanza kutumika kama lugha ya kufundishia kuanzia shule za msingi. Natumaini na kusali kwamba serikali haitakurupuka tu katika kutekeleza sera hii. Ni lazima walimu waandaliwe vizuri, vitabu viandikwe na kila kitu kiwe tayari. Uzoefu wangu hata hivyo unaniambia kwamba shule za vijijini zitaendelea kubakia nyuma kwani sioni sababu itakayowafanya walimu wazuri na wanaomudu Kiingereza vizuri kwenda kukaa vijijini. Na hapa sijagusia ile tabia yetu ya kushangaza ya kupeleka watu waliofeli katika mitihani yao ya kidato cha nne (D mbili tu zinatosha) katika vyuo vya ualimu.

Godwin Habib Meghji said...

Mimi sina uhakika kama binadamu anafikiria kwa kutumia lugha fulani. Viziwi na bubu pia hufikiri. Ninachoweza kukubaliana na nyie ni RAHISI KWA BINADAMU KUKIELEZA KITU ALICHOFIKIRIA KWA UFASAHA NA KUELEWEKA ZAIDI KWA LUGHA ANAYOIFAHAMU VIZURI. Sina uhakika kama hicho kiswahili tunakifahamu vizuri. Mara nyingi nimeona mtu anakosa msamiati wa kiswali kuelezea kitu fulani, si kwa sababu neno hilo halipo katika kiswahili, ila ni kutokana na kutokuwa mahiri kwenye hiyo lugha tunayodhani tunaijua zaidi. SITAKI KUKUBALI AU KUKATA KAMA MWANAFUNZI HUYU ANGEFANYA VIZURI ZAIDI KAMA ANGEANDIKA KATIKA LUGHA YA KISWAHILI. Nasema hivi kwa sababu ni wanafunzi wengi sana wanafeli hilo somo la kiswahili.
HITIMISHO
lugha ni nyezo tu ya kuwakilisha kitu tunachofikiria. NI VIZURI KUTILIA MKAZO KUJIFUNZA NA KUIELEWA. bila shaka ni rahisi zaidi kujifunza na kuwa mahiri kwenye lugha uliyoanza kuzungumza toka utotoni na inayozungumzwa na watu wengi wanaokuzunguka

Mdau Ujerumani said...

"Viziwi na bubu pia hufikiri"

Hapa nimecheka. Nani amekwambia kwamba viziwi na bubu hawana lugha? Si wanaishi na kuzungukwa na lugha? Kwa vile tu mtu cannot hear or can't talk does not mean that he doesn't have a language.

"Sina uhakika kama hicho kiswahili tunakifahamu vizuri"

You got mixed up here. Tunakijua sana Kiswahili cha kawaida. Academic Swahili ndiyo ina matatizo. When you begin talking about ngeli, mofimu etc then we have a problem. Hata wazungu hufeli sana Kiingereza cha madarasani. Na hii haina maana kwamba hawafahamu Kiingereza vizuri. Academic language mara nyingi haisemwi mabarabarani. Let us not mix the normal language and the academic language. IT IS THE ACADEMIC LANGUAGE that students fail and this is not to say that they don't understand the common language very well.

I believe that the work cited above would have been much better if the author had just used Swahili or any other language that she understands well.

It must also be noticed that language is spoken in a society and often the language problems reflect/mimic the reality in that particular society. The Tanzanian educational system is marred with a lot of problems and the language issue is just one of them - though probably the most potent one.

Blessing;

Mdau Ujerumani

Godwin Habib Meghji said...

KWA MDAU WA UJERUMANI.
Bila shaka umechanganya vitu viwili. LUGHA(language) na MAWASILIANO(communication). Lugha inatumika kwenye kuwasiliana, ila si lazima mawasiliano yote yawe ni kwa lugha.
SIJUI KWA WATU WENGINE, ILA MIMI MARA NYINGI SANA IMENITOKEA KUFIKIRIA KITU, ILA NIKASHINDWA KUKIELEZA KWA LUGHA YEYOTE NA KUKITOA KAMA NILIVYOFIKIRIA. Na nimeshuhudia watu wengi kama mimi. HILI NDILO LINALONISHAWISHI BINADAMU AFIKIRI KWA KUTUMIA LUGHA YEYOTE. ila anaweza kukieleza kitu alichofikiria vizuri kwa lugha anayoijua kwa ufasaha. SINA UHAKIKA KAMA UMENISOMA HAPA. Nisichokubaliana na wachingia mada wengi hapo juu, ni kwamba "MTU ANAFIKIRIA VIZURI KWA LUGHA ANAYOHIFAHAMU VIZURI".
"swala la kuifahamu vizuri lugha ya kiswahili"
Ndio maana nimesema sina uhakika kama tunakifahamu vizuri. sijafanya hitimisho hatukifahamu. MIMI BINAFSI NAPATA SHIDA SANA NINAPOSOMA TAARIFA NYINGI ZA KISERIKALI ZILIZOANDIKWA KISWAHILI. maneno mengi sana kwangu ni mageni ingawaje lugha ya kwanza na ninayohisi ninaijua vizuri ni Kiswahili. Na report nyingi zinaandikwa kwa kutumia "formal word". Kwa hiyo hicho unachosema ni kiswahili cha darasani akiepukiki kwenye "official reports".
KAMA KWELI WATU WANAFIKIRI KWA KUTUMIA LUGHA, KUNA UWEZEKANO MKUBWA KUNA LUGHA ZINAZOFIKIRISHA ZAIDI KULIKO NYINGINE NDIO MAANA NCHI FULANI ZINAMAENDELEO ZAIDI KULIKO NYINGINE(utani).
Sijapinga kuwa lugha ni kikwazo katika utoaji elimu. Naungana na wewe na wachangiaji wengine, ni tatizo kubwa katika mfumo wa elimu yetu nyumbani. NISICHOKUBALIANA NA WEWE NA WENGINE WENGI, NI KUWA BINADAMU ANAFIKIRIA KWA KUTUMIA LUGHA

kamala Lutatinisibwa Lutabasibwa said...

yaani nyote hapa hamfikiri! hamjui kuwa kiswahili pia sio lugha yetu!!!!! kwikwii kwiiiiiiiiii

mimi niliweza kuongea kiswahili vizuri mwaka 2002 nilipohamia Moshi kutokea Bukoba. sasa iweje mseme kiswahili ni lugha yetu? ungeniambia kihaya sawa.

hata kiswahili bado ni kigumu. tembelea blog yangu uone jinsi ninavyochanganya mambo kati ya R na L, umoja na wingi nk. kumbuka kuwa kiswahili pia ni lugha ya shuleni na sio lugha mama

LUSEKELO said...

WEWE UNAYEDHANI KISWAHILI NI KIGUMU KULIKO KIHAYA FIKIRIA ZAIDI. KIHAYA CHAKO NACHO KINAWEZA KUWA KIGUMU KWA MWINGINE KAMA ILIVYO KISWAHILI KWAKO. tATIZO LAKO LA RA NA ERO HALIMAANISHI NDIO NI TATIZO LA KILA MTU. MTAZAMO HUO NI TOO MYOPIC TO BEAR